The Shell Model

The SHELL Model

This conceptual model of human factors helps in understanding the various interactions between the engineer and his/her resources and their environment. With reference to the following figure, the inputs and outputs can be categorized into:

Software       -    Intangible aspects that governs the operation such as manuals, checklists, terms, policies and other soft data on computers

Hardware      -    Physical elements such as tools, test equipments, buildings, aircraft, engine components etc

Environment - Physical environment (weather conditions, heating, noise, ambience, etc) and work environment  (peer pressure, job satisfaction, shift patterns, etc)

Liveware    -    Involves human elements such as crew members, management and administration personnel, including YOU (the L person in the middle)